Most unintentional injuries were associated with bone fractures (60.93%), while the majority of physical assaults were not associated with bone fractures (79.4%). Similarly, extremity fractures were more common in unintentional injuries (46.87%) and facial bone fractures were relatively more common in physical attacks (8.82%). Most accidental injuries were life-threatening, with injuries to internal organs primarily associated with head trauma, suggesting that accidental injuries were more violent and more severe than physical attacks. This finding was supported by a study that showed that most RTD cases involved head injuries (43.22%) and that head injuries were significantly associated with death.5 Of 237 injury cases, 151 (63.7%) did not require hospitalization and were discharged after initial treatment in the emergency department. then a follow-up in the outpatient department. 42 (17.7%) were admitted to general wards, 38 (16.5%) to intensive care units, and 4 (1.7%) to the high-dependency unit, depending on the severity of their injury. Violations that do not correspond to any of the aforementioned clauses are contained in the eighth clause. An injury can cause severe bodily pain or threaten a person`s survival, but does not meet any of the above conditions included in this document. With regard to the forensic assessment of the forensic patient with hypovolemia, we believe that: Medico-legal offences were classified as serious and not serious under the Nepal Penal Code1, and non-serious injuries were again distinguished as simple, serious. The study showed that 52 (22%) of the injuries were serious, while 185 (78%) were not serious (mere 156 (65.8%), severe 29 (12.2%).
The study showed that most people were prone to road accidents (132/55.7%). This was followed by Home 36 (15.2%). Similarly, people also suffered injuries in 28 hotels or restaurants (11.8%) and in their workplace 13 (5.5%). A minority of 5% suffered injuries in the hostel, hospital and neighborhood. In 13 cases (5.5%), the location of the injury was not disclosed. A detailed medical history was taken by patients or their relatives at Compos Mentis. Physical examinations were conducted and details of bodily injuries were documented. Operating room notes, X-ray and CT scans were included in cases where internal injuries were present. Study variables such as age, sex, geographic distribution, type of injury, severity of injury, weapon or force used, location of injury, circumstances or type of causality, relationship between victim and perpetrator, drug or alcohol use during the incident, and cause of violence were recorded in Performa at the time of data collection, The information collected was also used as standard procedures for the preparation of forensic data Injury reports are used. Of the 237 cases reviewed, 170 had a history of physical assault and 64 cases were reported as a result of an accident (Table 1). Self-inflicted, spontaneous and suspected cases were minimal as too few cases were reported to a police station to obtain injury reports.
An injury is defined as the end of the natural continuity of one of the tissues of the living body. According to Section 44 of the Indian Penal Code, injury is defined as any unlawful harm inflicted on a person, i.e. your body, mind, reputation or property. The fact that injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and alongside the World Health Organization`s remarks that injuries and violence have been neglected from the global health agenda for many years, despite being predictable and largely preventable; In Nepal, very few studies have been conducted on trauma cases that hospitals visit for treatment.2,3 There are several clinical sources on the approach of hypovolemic patients. As the clinical condition became persistent in many patients after trauma, medico-legal problems appeared. The life-threatening characteristics of different hypovolemia groups are still being discussed with respect to forensic evaluation. The medico-legal assessment should use measurable and comparable criteria to determine the severity and clinical condition of lesions. Anatomical scoring systems such as AIS are the basic criterion for the preparation of the medico-legal opinion for medico-legal patients.
[2–5] The study aims to determine the prevalence of injuries among forensic cases in the forensic department of a tertiary care centre. anatomical rating scale; hypovolemia; forensic assessment; physiological rating scales; Transfusions Firearm injuries include both entry and exit injuries. Injuries vary in shape and size depending on the range of fire, the speed of the projectile and the location of the target. Forensic aspects of firearm injuries include: This study found that most injury victims are young men, which is similar to studies conducted in other parts of the country.4,5 One reason could be that the man is more active, working and has to travel. A study conducted in 15 different districts of Nepal showed that the average age of the injured person was 32.6 years, or the average age of 32.41 years in this study. A study conducted in India also showed that road accident victims are generally in their 3rd decade of life.5 This shows that people are more involved in injuries during their active and productive phase of life. This should be of concern, as it may result in an economic loss for the Community and the country as a whole. 2. It was possible to determine the age of the injury. Incised wounds are caused by sharp weapons and have a clear separation of tissues. The duration of the injury is greater than the depth.
The medical legal significance of incised wounds is as follows: when assessing the severity of clinical conditions in hypovolemic patients, reporting only the percentage of losses poses problems and limitations. Therefore, we believe that in terms of medico-legal assessment of hypovolaemic patients, it would be more appropriate to use physiological trauma scoring systems (such as revised trauma score) rather than anatomical scoring systems. Puncture wounds are mechanical wounds in which depth is the greatest dimension in relation to length and width. They can be made with knives, daggers and swords. The medical law aspects of these injuries are as follows: We believe that determining the severity of the clinical condition in hypovolemic patients only with loss percentages poses problems and limitations in forensic evaluation. The concept of life-threatening disease should be based on objective criteria in hypovolaemic patients and measurable and comparable criteria for determining the severity of trauma and injury should be developed. This study has limitations. This study is conducted in a single centre and includes only cases referred by the police for the preparation of forensic accident reports. Trauma scoring systems are often used to determine injury severity and clinical condition in the forensic assessment of the trauma patient.
Trauma scoring systems are also used to determine life-threatening conditions. Blood loss of more than 20% was given as the sole criterion for life-threatening conditions in acute hypovolemia. The purpose of this study was to review the medico-legal endpoints in patients with acute hypovolaemia and to discuss other parameters that could be used to determine the severity of clinical condition. Abrasion wounds are blunt violent injuries and result in the destruction of superficial epidermal layers. Pure abrasion rarely bleeds and it is a two-dimensional injury. The medical legal meanings are as follows: While most physical assaults were not life-threatening (89.41%) without the involvement of internal organ injuries, and 27 out of 64 (42.18%) cases of accidental injuries were life-threatening with fractures or injuries to internal organs. Among accidental injuries, road accidents were the most common, with 57 cases (89.06%) out of 64 accidental injuries, while 3 cases were due to accidental fall, 2 cases of accidental electric shock and 1 case of crushing injuries. Most road accident victims were pedestrians, followed by motorcyclists (Table 4). · www.slideshare.net/AkshayDeokar3/injury-forensic-science` objective of this study was to review the criteria that can be used for the medico-legal evaluation of patients with acute hypovolemia and to discuss parameters that can be used to determine the severity of the clinical condition.
We discussed hypovolaemic shock and circulatory shock with its etiology in relation to forensic evaluation. As mentioned in TCK, the severity of the injury (mild, life-threatening, bone fracture) must be reported to determine the severity of the injury or clinical condition.  However, we registered 328 cases that were submitted to the Ministry for documentation. In hypovolaemic patients, the concept of life-threatening disease should be based on objective criteria and measurable and comparable criteria for assessing the severity of trauma and injury should be established. The study showed that 22% of injuries were serious and 78% were not serious. The incidence of serious injuries is even lower in other studies conducted in Nepal.10 In this study, most injuries were not serious and were subdivided into simple and serious injuries because non-serious injuries were a legal term described in Nepal`s Penal Code, but medically, these non-serious injuries were still serious enough to be life-threatening.